STRESUL SI SARCINA

 

Perioada sarcinii este o perioada foarte solicitanta din punct de vedere emotional: emotiile firesti legate de bebelus (primele batati ale inimii vazute la ecografie, primele miscari simtite) pot fi asociate cu tulburari de dispozitie rezultate din fluctuatiile hormonale firesti in aceasta perioada. Dincolo de micile tulburari de dispozitie, expunerea la stres prelungit provenit din lipsa de suport familial, conditiile de lucru, evenimente generale majore etc pot declansa procese biologice care afecteaza atat sanatatea mamei cat si pe cea a copilului ne-nascut.

 

EFECTELE STRESULUI MATERN

(a) asupra mamei

Stresul matern poate determina depresie (cca una din zece gravide) si anxietate. Anxietatea poate determina cresterea nivelelor de CRH, adrenalina si noradrenalina, ingustand vasele de sange si rezultand o descrestere a oxigenului livrat in zona uterului (Dr. C. Dunkel-Schetter, UCLA). Depresia si anxietatea pot conduce in anumite cazuri la perpetuarea si chiar agravarea expunerii la alcool si nicotina, toxine ce pot provoca nasterea prematura, complicatii la nastere, retard de crestere si tulburari comportamentale la copil.

 

(b) asupra copilului

  • nasterea inainte de termen: cel putin o femeie din 10 naste inainte de termen (mai devreme de 37 saptamani) (Dr. Wadhwa); acest lucru se intampla deoarece apare o crestere anormal de mare a hormonul CRH (“ceasul”placentei) in saptamanile 16-20 (primul trimestru !) care controleaza durata sarcinii si maturizarea fatului. (Dr. Curt Sandman, UCLA)

Bebelusi nascuti inainte de termen sunt susceptibili la: boala cronica de plamani, intarzieri de dezvoltare, probleme de invatare si mortalitate infantila. Ca adulti pot dezvolta hipertensiune si diabet.

  • greutate mica  la nastere poate determina ca bebelusul sa dezvolte anumite  boli ca adult ex: boala coronariana, diabet, atac cerebral, hipertensiune, depresie etc (Barker 1995, Wahlbeck et al. 2001, Thompson et al. 2001, Hales et al. 1991).
  • schimbarea sexului copilului: femeile supuse unui stres major sunt predispuse sa dea nastere mai multor fete decat baieti – studiu de caz – dr. Karine Kleinhaus (NY University) in cazul cutremurului din Chile;
  • modificari genetice datorate modificarilor in metilarea AND-ului care ii face pe copii mai susceptibili la stres: predispozitie spre  depresie si iritabilitate (Helen Gunter, University of Konstanz, Germany)
  • IQ scazut: stresul matern (indeosebi in primul trimestru) face ca fatul sa raspunda mai greu la stimuli, abilitate care este un predictor important pentru IQ-ul copilului.

Toate motivele prezentate mai sus sustin ideea ca in toata perioda sarcinii (si mai ales in primul trimestru) este necesara o evaluare a stresul matern, precum si o reducere a nivelului de stres daca acesta este prea ridicat.  Dr Hobel a demonstrat ca reducerea stresului matern determina o scadere cu 21% a nasterilor inainte de termen precum si a tuturor complicatiilor in timpul nasterii.

Noi oferim protocolul de sanatate prenatala  Estella-S  care contine o procedura speciala pentru a identifica si trata in mod neinvaziv stresul maternal.

94 thoughts on “stresul si sarcina

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